- "He was wrong. Turns out, I'm a hero after all."
- —Eddie Thawne's last words to Iris West after sacrificing himself[src]
Eddie Thawne (Before 1989 - May 19, 2015) was a police detective of the Keystone City Police Department until he transferred to Central City Police Department. He was the partner of Joe West, the fiancé of Iris West, a good friend of Barry Allen, and an ancestor of Eobard Thawne. Nicknamed "Detective Pretty Boy" by Joe, he was one of the first police officers in the CCPD to discover of the existence of meta-humans - second only to Joe - and eventually learned of Barry's secret identity as the Flash. Learning he would be Eobard's ancestor, Eddie would later sacrifice himself to erase the Reverse-Flash's existence, saving his friends' lives and preventing any further harm to Central City or time itself.
As a child, Eddie Thawne was short and overweight, frequently picked on by bullies as a result. The taunts often turned into physical violence, and Eddie suffered many beatings at the hands of his tormentors, getting his "ass kicked, a lot". Eddie's bullying problem worsened when his father, a senator, was responsible for a factory's closure which many people depended on. The bullying continued to escalate until a sympathetic gym coach trained Eddie to fight back. Eddie also found it difficult to make friends.
Service with C.C.P.D.
On December 11, the night of the unveiling of the S.T.A.R. Labs particle accelerator, Eddie was to meet Katie Rogers, a dancer, at Mama Chow's Fine Dining for a dinner date, which he was really excited about. However, Katie canceled at the last minute due to an injury so Eddie dined by himself. After dinner, Eddie ended up stopping a thief who had stolen Iris West's laptop and brought the perpetrator to the CCPD. Sometime after Detective Fred Chyre was killed, Eddie became Joe West's new partner and started dating Iris in secret.
9 months later, Eddie happily greeted CSI Barry Allen, who had just awoken from a coma, before he and Joe left to investigate a robbery at Gold City Bank. They brought back various witnesses to the station, questioning the witnesses on the circumstances surrounding the bank robbery. He discussed with Joe how the robbery had a freak storm proceeding it, a seemingly frequent occurrence, similar to the "wide world of weird" cased that Barry loved investigating. They went on to question numerous witnesses, along with viewing footage they'd recorded on their cell phones. Following work, Eddie later went out to meet Iris at his girlfriend's work, where they exchanged a kiss and talked a little, before Iris went to talk with Barry. Not long after, Eddie and a number of other police officers arrived at the crime scene that Barry and Iris had been associated with. Eddie showed Joe the sketch artist's illustration from a suspect, which appeared to be the apparently deceased criminal Clyde Mardon. Suspicious that he could've survived, the two went to Mardon's old farmhouse, where they found the criminal. However, before they could arrest, Mardon knocked Eddie and Joe away with wind and began to create a tornado around himself, proceeding to move it outside. Joe carried Eddie's unconscious body outside by their car while they were powerless against Clyde. As a piece of debris flew through the air, it almost hit them, however it was intercepted by Barry's super speed, saving them from danger by ultimately unravelling the tornado and Joe shooting Mardon.
Detective West received a call that there was a situation at the Central City National Bank. By the time that they arrived there, both the strongman and The Steak had left. Iris met him at the crime scene, having been promised fro-yo. He reassured another cop that there was nothing between Barry and Iris, as they were like siblings, and Barry wasn't even Iris's type. When he finished, Eddie took Iris to get fro-yo. On the way there, the two were involved in a crash with multiple vehicles. They were uninjured, however as they got out, a tiger, the cause of the crash, pounced towards Iris. Eddie tried to nudge them away with pool toys, though they had little effect. However, The Steak intervened, zapping them away with static electricity, leaving Eddie to think that he'd done all of the work. When animal control arrived, the man commended Thawne for being able to do what he did, and Eddie mocked Barry for allegedly hiding and seemingly soiling himself. They reached the police department, where Eddie bragged about his achievement, only to soon be sent back out to a homicide. They concurred that the homicide was connected to the zoo outbreak, and started to look through the deeds of several companies scattered all over the floor. A short while later, Eddie and Iris attended a sports game. At half-time, Eddie labelled the surprise of a circus as "crappy", to which Iris simply mocked him, asking if he was afraid of the circus. Eddie attempted to go get some extra beer, though Iris made him stay to watch, kissing as he sat back down. Mr. Bliss soon struck fear in to everyone, causing Eddie to hallucinate seeing himself pointing a gun, apparently a past traumatic experience. However, Eddie, along with the rest of the crowd, was rushed outside of the stadium, claiming to have a raging headache. He attempted to keep everyone calm by announcing that he was police.
Eddie was present with various other police members at the scene of a robbery. He downloaded surveillance footage, of which only showed one perpetrator. However, Barry found evidence leading to the idea that it was in fact six people. After unintentionally implying that Captain Singh could have been a suspect due to similar shoe size, Eddie walked off in embarrassment to survey the rest of the crime scene. Eddie later came to visit Iris in Barry's lab. While they immediately acted distant, Barry reminded them that he knew of their situation and they proceeded to kiss. A while later, Eddie and Joe visited Simon Stagg after having been shot at only a day before. They asked questions about former employee Danton Black, though Stagg denied that it would ever be Black. As Simon walked away, Danton and masked clones began shooting at the three of them, forcing them to run for cover. When the coast was almost clear, Eddie took Stagg to safety. That night, Eddie visited Iris at his girlfriend's work. There they watched an interview with him on TV, and soon after he left for the police department to help with the hunt for Black.
Eddie arrived on to the scene of the murders of the Darbinyan crime family. He suggested the idea that they were gassed to death, though witnesses had allegedly seen no one outside at the time, therefore concluding that it had happened from the inside. Joe went on to determine that there had to be a canister of sorts somewhere, though Barry was sure that the gas could've had a mind of its own. Though Barry appeared to treat it as a joke, Joe's interest was peaked and so sent Eddie off to canvas the area again. Sometime later, Eddie came to visit Iris, under the impression that Joe had gone out. Eddie claimed to have been looking for Joe and suggested that they go back to the crime scene to re-canvass, to "always work the case", as Joe had proudly taught him. While Joe went to wait in the car, Eddie pretended to go to the toilet while he actually kissed Iris, getting annoyed that the secrecy, all Iris's idea, was potentially killing their relationship. Following their encounter, Iris met Eddie at the police precinct, claiming they needed to talk. Although Eddie initially mistook it for Iris breaking up with him, Iris explained that she was simply afraid of losing her first serious boyfriend. Before Eddie could walk off, still under the impression that Iris was breaking up with him, Iris pulled him back, kissing him in full public view. That night, Eddie was called by Barry whom he told Joe's location to: Iron Heights Prison, visiting Henry Allen. After Joe was hospitalized, Eddie and Iris finally decided to tell the truth of their relationship. However, putting it down to his detective skills, Joe admitted that he was already fully aware. Despite being angry, Joe promising to try the hardest not to shoot Eddie.
After Leonard Snart made an attempt to rob the Kahndaq dynasty diamond, Eddie along with Joe arrived at the scene. Eddie questioned how the driver who was shot made it to St. Andrews Hospital. Eddie later revealed Iris had previously talked him into going to the Khandaq Dynasty diamond exhibit. Eddie later told Joe that he's serious about Iris and he could see himself married to Iris. Eddie and Joe then furthered their conversation about Iris to which Eddie said they should just listen to the radio though it only made things more awkward between the two. Eddie later went to Trivia Night at CC Jitters with Iris, Barry, and Felicity Smoak. When Eddie saw Felicity's dress, he suggested that Iris buy the same dress. Eddie later incorrectly answered the name of Han Solo's ship after being over excited. At the Central City train station chasing Snart, Eddie was told by Joe to stay back and wait for back up but Eddie later reminded Joe that they're partners so he doesn't take orders.
Barry held a social get together which included Eddie, Iris, Cisco Ramon and Dr. Caitlin Snow where Caitlin also expressed attraction to Eddie yet Cisco expressed distrust in him, mainly out of jealousy. Later Eddie, Joe and Barry investigated a bombing at an office building though were unable to find what was stolen. Eddie later witnessed Joe being forced to hand over the instigation to General Eiling on Singh's orders.
While Tony Woodward was being chased by police, Eddie shot Tony in the head multiple times though he was shocked when none of them penetrated Woodward. Eddie was then nearly ran over by Woodward though Joe pushed him out of the way. When Eddie told Barry about what happened with Tony, Barry told him Tony must've had some body armor where Eddie reminded he shot Woodward in the face. When Iris came to visit, he noticed something was wrong between Barry and Iris. While investigating, Eddie admitted that he was intimidated by Barry at first, admitting that Barry is a good guy and how close the two were. Eddie later realized Tony came from Rusty Iron Ale Brewing Co.. After asking the workers about Woodward, one of them fled where Eddie and Barry chased the man down. After Barry ran in front, Eddie tackled the man and asked what happened to Tony. Eddie later asked Barry how he managed to get in front of them. At the precinct, Eddie and Barry blew off some steam together where Eddie was shocked when Barry punched through the punching bag. When Iris was kidnapped by Tony, Eddie stayed as calm as he could but very shacked up.
Eddie and Joe visited a crime scene with Barry, where the victim was burnt to a crisp by electricity with nothing else affected, despite numerous combustible objects nearby and no electrical objects around. Later Iris visited Eddie at the precinct by it was held up by William Tockman who took Iris, Joe and every cop hostage but Eddie managed to stay hidden. As Tockman attempted to get Singh to give him a helicopter, Eddie attacked him, only to be shot. Tockman took Iris as leverage, though Joe managed to convince Tockman to let her say goodbye to Eddie. As they kissed, Eddie took the opportunity to tell Iris where his spare gun was located, which she used to defeat Tockman. Afterwards, Eddie was taken to the hospital and soon recovered.
After Iris spent the night with him in his apartment, Eddie was disbelieved when Iris brought The Flash up, and went to a crime scene where all the people in the back tried to murder each other and Eddie comforted one of the people. Eddie began to notice all the strange occurrences in Central City and believed the Flash to be responsible and asked Singh to organize a taskforce to capture the Flash though he disbelieved him and Iris became mad at him for hating the Flash. Later when Eddie and Iris were driving back to his apartment, they began to fight about the Flash and Iris confessed to having met the Flash a few times which Eddie felt outraged about, but the Flash himself abruptly took Eddie from the car and started beating him down in the street (as the Flash was manipulated at the time by the Rainbow Raider). However, the Arrow arrived and fought the Flash which allowed Eddie and Iris to escape. Eddie later visited Iris to say that Singh approved the taskforce and he vowed to take the speedster in which his girlfriend now supported.
After seeing Iris's Christmas present from Barry, Iris's mother's wedding ring, Eddie suspected Barry harbored feelings for Iris though Iris denied it as Eddie gave Iris a present himself; a key to his apartment to move in with him which Iris accepted. Eddie later investigated a murder and thieving at Mercury Labs and he suspected the Flash's involvement due to the sighting of a blur. Eddie and Joe later went to S.T.A.R. Labs where Dr. Harrison Wells, Cisco and Caitlin set a trap for the attacker but found the Reverse-Flash instead of the Flash. After Reverse-Flash escaped and severely beat Wells, Reverse-Flash attacked and killed Eddie's taskforce but let Eddie live before the Flash himself attacked Reverse-Flash. Eddie later wondered why Reverse-Flash let him live and Joe confessed to the existence of meta-humans, like the Flash and this counter, and told Eddie that their existence needed to be kept secret. At the West house, Eddie, Joe, Iris, Barry, Cisco and Caitlin celebrated Christmas.
Following Joe's revelation regarding Meta-humans and The Flash saving his life on numerous occasions, Eddie has come to see The Flash as a hero rather than a vigilante.
Eddie punched Barry after confessing feelings to Iris but later apologized after Caitlin covered for Barry saying that was a side effect of the lightning strike and is receiving treatment at S.T.A.R. Labs for "Lightning Psychosis".
With Joe's support, Barry reveals himself as the Flash to Eddie in an effort to convince him to help protect Iris from investigating Mason Bridge's disappearance as Barry and Joe did not want Iris to get too close to their suspect for Iris's safety as Reverse-Flash murdered Bridge and subsequently hid Bridge's corpse. Eddie later lies to Iris, suggesting that Mason had run away to Brazil about a liaison with a mysterious woman. When discussing their story with Joe and Barry, Eddie makes it clear that he has doubts in regards to keeping Iris in the dark for her own safety but decides to argue about it another time. He listens to Barry's suspicions that Wells is Reverse-Flash.
While having the Flash assist his arrests makes his job in apprehending criminals easier, Eddie struggles to keep Barry's secret with Iris, believing Iris deserved to know, but Joe told him to keep it from Iris. This strained their relationship, as Iris didn't think Eddie should hide anything. While eating at a restaurant with Iris, Barry, Ray Palmer and Felicity, Iris berated Eddie for hiding a secret and stops living with him for a little bit.
Barry and Eddie later tracked down the meta-human Hannibal Bates that could shape-shift into anyone after coming into contact with. Hannibal framed Eddie by impersonating him and shooting two cops. Despite Barry taking Eddie out of prison due seeing this as similar to Henry, Eddie convinces Barry to return him back to custody. Thankfully, the Flash defeated Hannibal and the video evidence proved Eddie's innocence. Eddie told Iris that his secret is that he was working with the Flash and they started to rekindle their relationship.
When the team neared their plan to capture Wells, Eddie planned to propose to Iris. He asked for Joe's blessing but Joe refused to give it. He later goes over to the bridge with his girlfriend. But just as he is about to propose to Iris, Eddie is knocked by Reverse-Flash. Before Reverse-Flash could kill Iris, the Flash arrived and Reverse-Flash kidnapped Eddie. Reverse-Flash revealed himself to be Eobard Thawne, Eddie's descendant from the future.
Though imprisoned, Eddie confidently believed that Eobard would fail against Team Flash. Eobard revealed Eddie's fate in the future: Eddie would go down as the most forgettable individual in their family lineage due to his uneventful life as a detective. Eddie is also devastated when Eobard reveals that Iris will marry Barry in the future instead of him. Eobard revealed to Eddie his plan to return to the future.
When Eobard activated the particle accelerator, the team found Eddie trapped and managed to free him. Disillusioned from his time with Eobard, Eddie is confronted by Iris about his proposal, he revealed that Iris marries Barry in the future and left. Despite Iris's unwillingness to accept the future, Eddie chose to break up with Iris, knowing that his love interest always loved Barry all along.
Though the group finally managed to capture the Reverse-Flash with the help of the Arrow and Firestorm, Eddie fell into a period of depression, and remained painfully aware of everything that his descendant had revealed to him about the future. In an attempt to comfort him, Martin Stein theorized that Eddie was an anomaly in time, describing him as a "coincidence" and capable of choosing his own future. Remembering how he met Iris, this encouraged Eddie to disregard his belief in destiny and repair his relationship with Iris, saying "screw the future".
Eddie would watch when Barry returned after not undoing Nora Allen's death and destroying Eobard's time vehicle, resulting in the two speedsters fighting in the Pipeline. As Reverse-Flash gets the upper hand and threatened to kill all of Barry's loved ones before striking a finishing blow, Eddie shot himself in the chest, aware that his own death would prevent Eobard from having ever been born. Eddie found comfort that he would die a hero, and soon passed away in Iris's arms as Eobard gets erased from existence. But his actions' effects on the timeline caused a singularity to form that threatened to destroy the world. The wormhole managed to engulf Eddie's body before Barry and Firestorm were able to avert the disaster.
Eddie ended up living an apparently uneventful life and remained in his career as a detective in law enforcement. Eddie between 2015 - 2024 broke up with Iris West as she went on to marry Barry Allen. He also at some point after 2015 conceived at least one child, presumably a son, with an unknown woman that, because of Eobard having the surname, took the Thawne surname Implying that Eddie had some hand in that child's upbringing. Eddie was also obviously deceased by 2151, the period in time his 4x great-grandson hailed from.
Eddie's life apparently had very minimal historical significance and was the only member of his own family who had virtually no record of unlike his descendants which comprised of successful scientists, politicians and captains of industry. However, Eobard knew of Eddie's existence and considered Eddie a failure of within their family. His only real contribution and worth to Thawne family were carrying on the bloodline and ensuring those successful descendants' existence.
Eddie's suicide apparently prevented any further damage to the timeline and effectively saving the future from his demented descendent's wrath. Barry, Iris and Joe were left to grieve for Eddie in secret, painfully aware that the world could never learn of his sacrifice.
The deaths of both Eddie and Ronnie Raymond caused Barry to work alone for a period of six months in an attempt to prevent anyone else from getting hurt, as Barry blamed himself for both Eddie and Ronnie getting killed; Barry regarded both individuals as the true heroes who stopped Eobard and saved Central City. When Barry experienced a mid-day vision of defeating Captain Cold and Heat Wave with Firestorm's help, Eddie's amongst everyone praising the Flash's efforts after this skirmish. Eddie's photo was displayed on CCPD's wall for fallen officers as a memorial.
Eddie's death also caused Iris to hold herself back from finding someone else. After Barry had traveled back in time and saw Eddie again, Barry had Eddie leave a message for Iris. This message was later brought to Iris who happily cried upon hearing the message and helped Iris move on from him.
- "What are the odds that Dr. Wells would travel back in time and get stuck in the exact same city as his great-great-great-great grandfather? Working in the same profession, the same building? And that part of his plan to get home would mean that he'd have to preserve and protect your life. That makes you this rare thing that no scientist can plan for.”
“Coincidence. There is no science to coincidence. You, sir, are an anomaly. A wild card, as it were. You are the only person in this whole story who gets to choose his own future."
- —Martin Stein and Eddie Thawne[src]
Eddie was described as a "pretty boy" who actually kept track of his arrests, had a certain wit and appeared to be cocky yet was a very efficient cop, who went to any lengths to catch the criminals. He does have a caring side, as he covered Joe's shifts so he could visit Barry, and was often the first one to comfort the witnesses of the various crimes he and Joe looked into. He also disbelieves in the Flash's existence (at first) and thinks anyone who did was a drug user. But when he "converts" he becomes distrusting of the Flash, especially after he tries to murder him under Roy Bivolo's influence, and wants him taken down. However, since his near-death experience at the hands of his evil counterpart, Reverse-Flash, he seems to have changed his mind. He later saved the Flash when he was pinned down, evidencing that he sees him as a hero instead of a threat.
Eddie was proven to care for Iris a lot, as he kept their relationship from Joe a secret at her insistence, which, though it annoyed him, he did for 9 months until she was ready to admit it, Eddie was also reasonable, as some dates with Iris have involved places which Eddie isn't too interested in yet goes for Iris. Eddie's working relationship with Joe was fairly stable, as they are both excellent cops who trust each other with their lives. Yet Iris' relationship with Eddie sometimes makes Joe wary. Eddie has a stable friendship with Barry, though the latter isn't entirely trusting of Eddie, mainly out of envy that he was dating Iris, but was surprised to hear that Eddie felt threatened by him when they met. After a year of dating, Eddie was brave enough to ask Iris to move in with him yet suspected that Barry may harbor feelings for Iris though she denied it.
Eddie was proven to be loyal to Joe and very sharp, when questioning Joe's resolve to investigate Eobard Thawne, only to have Joe be determined to do so, Eddie smiled, seemingly thrilled to help Joe, most likely because he knew inconsistencies with Eobard's story of his home being attacked, he was also proven to be to care about people as he tried to talk a man out of committing suicide. He was also proven to have a laid back personality when the man asked if he would let him get back on top of the building after the Flash put him safely on the bottom only for Eddie to reply no in a comical manner.
Upon discovering that Barry is also the Flash and Eobard is Reverse-Flash, Eddie aids Joe and Barry in stopping Iris from finding out that Mason Bridge was killed by Eobard as this knowledge would have put her life in danger. He was reluctant to do so as he did not like lying to her and his dishonesty put a massive strain on their relationship.
After being captured by Eobard, he was horrified to discover that Eobard is actually his descendant from the future; he realizes that this was why Eobard did not kill him in their first encounter, Eddie was pained to learn from Eobard that Iris would become Barry's wife in the future instead of his and so breaks up with Iris, partly influenced by his knowledge of future events but mainly because there was a part of him that suspected Iris of having romantic feelings for Barry. He did not want to be in a relationship or to marry someone who had romantic feelings for another, however, this decision was not lasting as he later reconciled with Iris, believing that he would not let fate control his decisions.
Eddie was amazingly brave and selfless; as he willingly committed suicide to prevent Eobard from causing any further harm in the present and future, and in order to save Barry, Iris, Joe and Team Flash from his evil descendant.
- High-level intellect/Expert detective: As a police detective of the Central City Police Department (formerly of the Keystone City Police Department), Eddie continuously proved himself a highly trained detective.
- Expert driver: Eddie was highly trained driving cars.
- Expert hand-to-hand combatant: As a police detective, Eddie was an accomplished hand-to-hand combatant, as he had received training as all Keystone City Police Department members do. As seen during a training session with Barry Allen, Eddie also had a degree of boxing skills that he had honed from a young age thanks to his gym teacher lessons. He helped exemplify this by teaching Barry about proper striking methods. Eddie's fighting capabilities allowed him to overpower Hannibal Bates for a time.
- Expert marksman: As a police detective, Eddie was highly trained in the use of firearms.
- Guns: Eddie was very proficient in using guns.
- Handcuffs: Eddie carried handcuffs whenever he was out on patrol.
DC's Legends of Tomorrow
The Flash: Season Zero
The Chronicles of Cisco
- Eddie is right-handed.
- Eddie shares several traits with Tommy Merlyn:
- Both characters are related to a major antagonist, Malcolm Merlyn and Eobard Thawne, respectively, and their surnames are the same as those villains.
- Both Eddie and Tommy were also mistaken for Eobard and Malcolm by some fans respectively early on in the series, until the latter two made their official debuts/revealed their secret identities.
- Both debuted in the first season of their respective shows, and subsequently died by the end of the same season.
- Both died protecting their loved ones. Tommy died saving Laurel Lance from the collapsing CNRI building while Eddie killed himself to protect Iris and his friends from the Reverse-Flash.
- Both characters have villainous counterparts in the comics.
- Tommy facilitated a love-triangle between himself, Laurel, and Oliver Queen, while Eddie formed a love-triangle between himself, Iris, and Barry Allen.
- Both characters were considered as being failures by their respective close relatives. Malcolm cut Tommy out of the family fortune and subsequently hired him in order to put his son's life in order. On the other hand, Eobard merely split Eddie apart from Iris only to ensure that Eddie begins a long blood-line of brilliant men of science, which included Eobard.
- Both characters' deaths prompted the main characters, Oliver and Barry, to change their methods of vigilantism.
- Both characters have appeared sporadically in the subsequent seasons of their respective shows, where they haunt the main character but also inspire them.
- Eddie is the first member of the main cast of to have died.
- Eddie didn't appear in the Legion of Doom's rewritten reality. It would seem that either Eobard created a reality where his ancestor isn't needed to exist or did restore Eddie but the Speed Force is aware that things shouldn't be like this. This is referenced by the fact that the Black Flash is still chasing after Eobard, and shouldn't be if Eddie were to exist.
- Although Eddie committed suicide in 2015 to erase the Reverse-Flash from existence, Eobard somehow returned and later traveled to Earth-X where he joined forces with the New Reich and coordinated an assault on Earth-1, later agreeing to help Dark Arrow save his wife by killing Supergirl. However, these efforts were stopped by Earth-1 heroes, leading Eobard to flee before he was slain by the Flash. By 2034, Eobard was imprisoned at Iron Heights, leading him to coordinate his own escape by using Nora West-Allen to work with Team Flash in 2018-2019 to defeat Cicada and destroy his dagger. The eventual destruction of Cicada's dagger resulted in Eobard escaping Iron Heights and facing Team Flash before making his escape.
- It was never revealed his direct relation to Eobard Thawne, but it was stated by Martin Stein in a conversation Eddie had with him, that he is Eobard´s 4x-Great Grandfather.
Behind the scenes
- Eddie's name was a red herring for viewers that knew of Eobard Thawne before Eobard revealed himself and mentioned Eddie as a distant relative.
- Eddie also shares his name with another Reverse-Flash, The Rival (Edward Clariss), Jay Garrick's archenemy in the comic books.
- In the comics, the modern-day Thawne who lived in the present day is Malcolm Thawne, Barry Allen's long-lost twin brother, and possessor of a talisman that give him super speed, among other powers.
- While his body was being sucked into the singularity, Eddie was shown to be wearing a blue object around his neck, and was being dragged inside with several pieces of cobalt resin from a time machine. This may be a nod to Malcolm having worn the talisman around his neck, a gift from his grandmother, possibly indicating that Eddie could return as Cobalt Blue. Eddie also acquired his engagement ring from his grandmother, further reinforcing the similarities.
|Other versions of Eddie Thawne|
|To see other versions of this character, click the Earth name below for that Earth's counterpart of Eddie Thawne.|
|Earth: 1 • 27|